Portal Frame Buildings

Portal Frame Buildings

One of the most important decisions in purchasing a pre-engineered steel building is choosing the type of framing.  Which best fits the end-use, size, design, specifications, and budget for your project?

A Tekmetsan steel framed building uses “portal frame” steel framing.

Portal frame buildings are low-rise structures consisting of rafters and columns which are connected to moment-resisting connections for super strength.  As a result, they are constructed bay by bay which make them very fast to erect on site.  They were first developed in the 1960s, and have now become the most common form of construction.  

Portal frame construction is therefore typically seen in warehouses, barns and other places where large, open spaces are required at low cost and a pitched roof is acceptable.

Clear Span Steel Building

The frame of a clear span building is self-supporting and requires no interior columns.  The interior is completely open and unobstructed.

A clear span system provides the maximum amount of usable floor space and maximum floor plan flexibility.

Clear span structures are available up to 30 meters in width on Tekmetsan standard steel structures.
Clear span widths of over 30 meters are also possible with a custom order.
Typically, clear span framing works well wherever manoeuvrability is a factor.
Clear span structures are ideal for:

• Agricultural Buildings
Aircraft and Helicopter Hangars
• Factories and Workshops
• Manufacturing Facilities
• Recreational Facilities and Gymnasiums
• Storage Buildings
Warehouses

As the open-span width increases, the size and weight of the steel framing members must also increase to handle the structural load.

Modular Metal Framing

In modular framing, interior columns evenly distribute the structural load. Therefore, modular steel structures require lighter steel. Less framing weight reduces the cost of not only the steel building framing, but often the foundation as well.
Generally speaking, the wider the building, the greater the savings with a modular frame.
Unless unobstructed floor space is critical to the operation, most steel framed buildings wider than 30 meters use modular span framing. These may include:

• Distribution Centres
• Industrial Facilities
• Manufacturing Plants
• Warehouses

If clear span space is not paramount to your building’s operation, consider getting quotes for both systems for comparison of pricing.

Conclusion

Clear span designs offer the most usable space; modular designs create the most economical steel structures.

Whatever your metal building needs, Tekmetsan’s steel building framing specialists can provide you with expert guidance in choosing the best steel framed building for your specific application.  Our friendly and experienced staff will answer all your questions from building concept to completion

How to Prevent Structural Steel from Rusting

How to Prevent Structural Steel from Rusting

Steel is a robust, resilient and durable material which can main its structural integrity for decades if it is not exposed to corrosion. All steel materials, including steel structures, are susceptible to rust. If steel is not protected, rust is mostly unavoidable therefore all steel fabrications are subject to coating for a long lifetime. This blog will present techniques and methods on how to avoid corrosion on steel structures.

What is rust?

Rust is the term used to describe red iron oxides produced when ferrous metals corrode. Rust is the common name for the chemicals that result when iron reacts with oxygen and water. “Rust” is poorly defined in chemistry, however—lots of chemicals can be formed when iron is left exposed.

What causes rust?

Any material made with iron that is exposed to both oxygen and water will rust. Because steel is made almost entirely of iron, it is the most highly manufactured man made material that is subject to rust. 

While steel buildings and beams are structurally sound and stable, water molecules can penetrate those microscopic, near-invisible gaps within the steel. Once they creep within the metal, it starts to corrode slowly. Where salt is present – in seawater, for example – the corrosion process will be quicker. The presence of salt acts as a catalyst, accelerating the corrosion chemical reaction process

Types of Coatings

Galvanised steel is an excellent solution for preventing rust. The steel product is coated in a zinc layer, which acts as a protective barrier for the metal underneath, against oxygen and water. Zinc is more reactive than iron, so the zinc oxidises, rather than the metal itself. 

Protective paint systems usually consist of primer, intermediate/build coats and finish coats. Each coating ‘layer’ in any protective system has a specific function, and the different types are applied in a particular sequence of primer followed by intermediate/build coats in the shop, and finally the finish coat (or top coat) either in the shop or on site.

• Powder coating

Powder coating involves adding dry powders to clean surfaces, heating the object and subsequently turning the powder into a thin film. This film adds another layer of protection for structural steel surfaces against corrosion.

The coating type of each steel structure should be decided based on the below criteria;

• What kind of painting conditions are we working with?

• What kind of environment is our end product used in? (Is it indoors? Or are there harsh weather conditions?)

• What types of metal surfaces are we working with?

• How long do we want the paint to hold?

As with any field or industry, there are certain standards and regulations that need to be taken into account when deciding which product to go with. Tekmetsan complies with ISO 12944 International corrosion protection standard in its products.

 
Conclusion:

Tekmetsan technical sales team will guide you in choosing the best paint system tailored to your needs.

Steel Fabrication Process

Steel Fabrication Process

Fabrication is the process used to manufacture steelwork components that will, when assembled and joined, form a complete frame or structure.

At Tekmetsan, we usually use readily available standard sections that are purchased from the steel mills, together with such items as protective paints and bolts from other specialist suppliers. 

Our modern steelwork fabrication shops have computer-aided design and detailing (CAD), which is linked directly to factory floor computer numerically controlled (CNC) machinery, creating a genuine seamless CAD/CAM environment. The accuracy of the computer-generated details being transmitted directly to the CNC machinery increases the quality standards of our production.

Steel Fabrication Steps

While the architect creates the blueprint, a fabricator evaluates the steps with steelwork and recommend alterations that could be done to the shop drawing. And then, approval or rejection of these recommendations is done by the architect.

At Tekmetsan, our engineers and draftsmen work on the approved blueprint to create the details of the all steel parts that form the steel structure. These drawings will be used while manufacturing the components. For every individual shop drawing that is created, the below-mentioned aspects get the undivided attention:

• Material specification
• Manufacturing standards
• Required dimensions
• Surface setups
• Size
• Colour and paint requirements
• Welding
• Bolting

2. Cutting, Bending, Drilling

Cutting is the first part of structural steel fabrication. High-grade steel needs to be cut by cropping or sawing using different tools like sawing and drilling lines, laser cutters, plasma cutters, or water jets etc. 

The methods typically employed are sawing (cold sawing or band sawing), burning and shearing. All these tasks are performed under a closed manufacturing factory and all required safety measures are taken for these processes.

3. Welding & Assembly

Steel sections are assembled here to make complete structures. After cutting and forming of steel components are done, then the welding process begins to assemble it into a complete structure. Structural welding has its own set of codes, blueprints, and types of weld joints.

The process of welding involves the joining of two separate metal parts. The parts used in a welding application could be sheets, sections, bars or shapes. Welding is achievable through numerous methods and tool types. Often, a weld is achieved through the application of heat along the points where the two pieces are meant to be joined.

All the metal surfaces are cleaned by sandblasting or shot blasting before the paint application. Upon the request of the clients, Tekmetsan also offers hot dip galvanization coating to its clientele, however hot dip galvanization works are outsourced to specialized galvanization subcontractors.

Based on the paint selection of the customer, all painting works are performed in climate controlled environment according to the international standards.
Tekmetsan offers various types of paint coating for different levels of environments.

5. Packaging and Shipment

All the products are marked, packed and palletized and stored in the finish product warehouse. Tekmetsan uses overhead cranes and mobile high-up for the loading. We are able to load all means of transportation vehicles.

What is a steel framed building system?

What is a steel framed building system?

DEFINING A PRE-ENGINEERED METAL BUILDING SYSTEM

A steel framed building system creates an incredibly strong, long-lasting, affordable structure.

The flexibility of pre-engineered steel buildings makes them the ideal building solution for most low-rise agricultural, aviation, commercial, industrial, recreational, and storage buildings.

Check out the below video prepared by American Metal Building Builder Association.

What exactly is a Steel Framed Building System?

A metal building system is a system designed by a sophisticated steel structural software according to the design criteria and parameters. 

The software then generates detailed drawings for the fabrication of each framing component of the prefabricated metal building. 

Factory-trained professionals manufacture each piece of the framing to these exacting specifications.  Fabricators cut, shape, weld, drill, punch, paint, and mark each framing piece for quick identification.

Our steel framing systems ship to the job site, ready to assemble.

Pre-engineered Steel Building components

The steel building framing erects in a systematic, logical order:

• Factory-produced steel column and rafter beams bolt together with heavy-duty steel bolts and nuts, forming a single frame.

• These frames bolt to the foundation, creating a “bay”— the area between two frames.

Steel girts are attached to the sides of the columns for cladding support.

Steel purlins connect the frames across the roof.

• Typically, insulation (sandwich) panels screw to the roof and exterior walls forming the “skin” of the prefabricated metal building. However, a metal building system may also be finished with block, brick, glass, aluminium, tilt-up concrete, or any other traditional exterior finish.

In addition, all Tekmetsan pre-engineered steel buildings include an anchor bolt diagram and a set of plans for the erection works.

Contact Our Experts at Tekmetsan

Contact Tekmetsan Steel Building Systems now for more information about our commercial-grade steel building framing. 

You can trust our experienced metal building specialists to answer your every building question.  They can also provide valuable professional advice for streamlining your prefabricated metal building project. 

Steel Types and Grades

Steel Types and Grades

Steel offers exceptional qualities in terms of mechanical resistance. Of the most commonly used materials in construction, it demonstrates the greatest resistance for the lightest section, both in tension and compression. This opens the door for architects to a wide choice of technical and aesthetic solutions. 

The main steel grades that we are using in our structures are S235, S275 and S355 for structural members.

Steel Product Types

The steel products can be classified into two main categories, as shown in the below figure

1. Hot Rolled Profiles

Hot rolled long products (often referred to as ‘sections’ or ‘profiles’) are generally used for the main frame members (columns, beams, bracings).

Sections undergo various transformations through cutting, welding, bending etc., in order to obtain very different shapes and improved performance.

2. Cold Formed Long Products

Cold formed long products, formed from thin sheet steel, are generally used as secondary members for cladding (rails) and roofs (purlins)

3. Flat Products
In metal building construction, the use of flat products is mainly for the following purposes:
• Steel decking for floors
• Roofs
• Cladding
For each of these purposes, thin sheet steel is used, frequently formed into profiled sheets

Essential components of steel buildings

Essential components of steel buildings

A pre-engineered steel building is a modern technology where the complete designing is done at the factory and the building components are brought to the site in a completely knock down condition and then fixed/jointed at the site and raised with the help of cranes.
In this article we will highlight the three types of components used to build modern steel structures

1. Primary Framing

Primary framing is comprised of fabricated columns and rafters; referred to as frame lines or main frames when bolted together. These are the heavy members in the superstructure that bear the major weight and applied loads. 

These components are the distinguishable elements that people can see, and know without a doubt, that they are looking at a metal building. At Tekmetsan we use generally hot rolled sections for columns and rafters. 

Without the complete primary frame, the building would not stand up to vertical or lateral loads over time. The following items, bolted or welded together, form the superstructure:

• Columns: The vertical supports. Columns can come shaped as tubes or with a cross-sectional shape of a capital H, I, L or U.

• Beams: The horizontal supports that rest atop the columns. Usually I or H-shaped with flanges perpendicular to the “web” or main plate.

• Rafters: Also beams, these horizontal members support the roof assembly.

• Trusses and Lattice Girders: Alternative support for the roof or upper floors, comprised of a latticework of bracing metal between top and bottom chords. While the chords bear compression and tension loads, the bracing resists shear forces.

• Girders: Horizontal beams that support floors.

2. Secondary Framing

Once the backbone of your framing has been determined, the next step is to plan the secondary framing. 

Providing the stabilizing members that prevent the main frame from twisting out of shape, secondary components can also contribute to the structural support and provide the means to attach wall, roof and interior elements. The secondary framing usually transfers loads to the main frame.

• Girts and purlins: Girts tend to be Z-shaped, providing support for wall panels while increasing the strength and stability of the primary framing. Purlins serve the same purpose, but are utilized in roof applications.

• Wall and Roof Braces: Bars, cables rods or strips that resist shearing and contribute more lateral stability.

• Eave Struts: The transition piece between the wall girts and roof purlins along the eave.

• Headers and Jambs: The framework for openings such as doors, windows and bays.

3. Fasteners

The primary and secondary framing components needed to complete your structure will be manufactured in a steel fabrication facility to ensure the highest levels of quality and consistency. 

Once these pieces arrive on your site, it is time to assemble them with the approved fasteners:

Bolts (anchor bolts, U-bolts, and so on)
• Construction screws
• Inserts
• Weld studs
• Threaded studs

Building Envelope

Typically comprised of pre-coated, single-skin metal panels; however, insulated metal panels are becoming more commonplace. However, just as common, the materials used to enclose a metal building structure can vary from masonry to glass, wood siding to innovative architectural panels, and beyond. Chances are the brick façade you see on your favourite retail store is hiding a metal building beneath. In certain applications, the metal panels add structural integrity to the building system as a whole, and why the term metal building systems is commonly used. 

Single-skin panels and the metal components of insulated panels are cold-formed, just like the secondary framing.

Sheet steel runs through a progressive series of rollers that shapes the flat material into a specific cross-sectional profile that is strong and durable. After cutting to length, appropriately bundled and crated, the finished product is ready for delivery.

While an economical option, the through-fastened metal panel remains a long-lasting, attractive and versatile product. Architectural metal panels offer concealed fastener options, with enough variety to likely satisfy all aesthetic demands. 

What is a pre-engineered steel building ?

What is a pre-engineered steel building ?

There is not one but many definition of pre-engineered steel building

• A cost-efficient building system alternative to conventional construction
• A steel building designed for the most efficient use of raw materials
• A structural system generally including steel framing, roofing, and wall cladding
• A structure built on site using prefabricated components
• A simplified, streamlined building system designed for quick construction

Check out the below video prepared by American Metal Building Builder Association.

The versatility of steel prefab buildings makes them a popular building solution for commercial enterprises, industrial structures, and even personal use buildings.

Designing a Pre-engineered Steel Building

Tekmetsan pre-engineered steel buildings are not standard designs ordered from a catalog. Each of our prefab building is designed, engineered, and fabricated for the specific project, based on the customer’s needs.

Based on the customer-supplied details, computer-aided design software creates working plans and detailed drawings.

Current local building codes, equipment loads, and other detailed criteria are fed into advanced steel engineering programs.

Every order includes an anchor bolt plan and a full set of assembly plans.

 

Fabricating a Pre-engineered Steel Building

Drawings detailing the manufacturing of every piece of the framing arrive at the manufacturing plant.

Each individual component of the framing is precision cut, shaped, welded, drilled, painted, and marked per the exacting specifications in the drawings.

Tekmetsan supplies prefab buildings with a single-source shipment of the entire steel framing system. 
All the framing pieces and accessories ship together.
 Everything arrives at your job site on an agreed schedule.

Erecting Prefab Buildings

Typically, a steel prefabricated building erects in significantly shorter time of more labour-intensive construction methods.

Detailed drawings shows the exact location of every piece of the framing puzzle.  It is just a matter of installing the pre-marked pieces in the locations indicated. All structural members bolt together easily.

Conclusion

Pre-engineered prefab buildings are the modern solution for low rise buildings on practicality, price, and performance. With years of experiences, Tekmetsan offers design and fabrication of pre-engineered buildings.

ISO 12944 – Protective Paint Systems

ISO 12944 – Protective Paint Systems

Corrosion must be considered early in the design of steel structures. If left unprotected in corrosive environments, steel structures are liable to corrosion that can be both costly and put lives in danger.

One way to control corrosion is to use paints and coatings. ISO 12944 is the internationally recognised standard that provides instruction and guidance to those working with steel structure design, including planners, painters, inspectors, maintenance, and manufacturers of coatings.

How a steel structure is designed has a real bearing on the ability to protect it against corrosion. Poorly designed structures may have corrosion traps which are difficult to protect and from which corrosion can spread rapidly.

The basic steel structure design criteria that may be exposed to corrosive environments include keeping the design simple and minimising surfaces that may be exposed to corrosive pressures.

Designers should incorporate design elements to prevent water being trapped and where foreign matter may combine to increase the potential for corrosion. Design features that might be considered include inclined surfaces, drainage systems, and chamfered edges.

• The shape of the structure
• The use of the structure
• Structural elements such as method of joining
• Environmental factors

In many instances, steelwork will be in a warm dry interior where it will not corrode, and the structural stability of the building will not be threatened during its design life (generally taken as 50 years). In such conditions (classified as C1) no corrosion coating is required. Examples include steelwork inside dry buildings with neutral atmospheres such as multi-storey office buildings, shops, schools, hotels, residential buildings, airport terminals, and hospitals, etc.

However, when steelwork is exposed to moisture, corrosion will occur at a rate depending on the severity of the environment. In such cases, a coating system appropriate to the environment category should be provided. Note that some buildings may contain areas where different environment conditions apply e.g. hospitals would normally be C1, but may contain kitchens and laundry areas that would normally be C3. Some types of buildings, such as car parks may fall into any of the above categories or combinations of them depending upon their location, design and construction.

Experienced technical sales of Tekmetsan will help you in determining what kind of corrosion class your structure falls. After identifying the corrosion class, our experts will offer you the appropriate coating solution for your budget.

Tekmetsan has very deep knowledge in both high and low corrosion environments and delivered various steel structures with various coating options. Get in contact with us today and let’s discuss your steel building.

Steel Stairs

Steel Stairs

Steel staircases offer several benefits over other traditional materials such as timber and concrete. Other than its obvious durability and longevity, steel is a cost-effective, practical and versatile modern staircase construction material:

• It delivers a modern aesthetic

• It is significantly stronger than timber construction

• It is very flexible to meet almost any design challenges

• It enables fast and secure erection.

A striking staircase design is the focal point of your walkthrough and should blend seamlessly with the rest of your building. Not only should the design impact and complement your structure but it should also be practical.

Tekmetsan has broad experience in designing and fabricating commercial and industrial staircases.

Industrial Staircases

Modular, permanent, code-compliant, industrial staircases (cage, cat ladders) designed to meet the access requirements of industrial applications.

Designed in modular units with a choice of standard stairs or alternating tread stairs. Each unit is assembled and then installed by stacking and bolting together at the base plates for easy alignment. No welding is required for assembly or installation.

• Roof access
• Tank access
• Long-term construction site stairs
• Equipment access
• Work platforms

Commercial Staircases

Tekmetsan fabricates bolted stair systems consisting of pre-fabricated landing, stringer, tread, and rail components that are easily customized to meet specific project requirements.

We provide dedicated, in-house resources for each step of your commercial steel stair project
• Estimating
• Project management
• Modeling and detailing
• Material delivery scheduling and phasing
• Installation drawings and support

Applications
• Hotels
• Apartment buildings
• Office and mixed-use
• Mid- and high-rise buildings
• Health Institutions
• Parking garages
• Multi-level storage facilities
• Student housing

Design & Modeling

Our in-house design team provides all necessary documentation for a successful staircase delivery.
• All projects include modeling and BIM coordination
• .ifc files for structural steel coordination are available
• Complete General Arrangement Set for review and approval

After the order confirmation we provide:
• ISO views
• Section views
• Plan views
• Dimensions
• Connection details

Metal Building insulation

HOW TO INSULATE A METAL BUILDING ?

In most applications, the primary feature of thermal insulation material is its ability to reduce heat exchange between a surface and the environment; or between one surface and another surface. The general rule is the lower a material’s thermal conductivity, the greater its ability to insulate for given material thickness and set of conditions. 

Before buying an insulation system for your metal building, you need to understand insulation R-value.

At its simplest, insulation R-value indicates the amount of heat flow through an insulation product.

The higher the R-value number, the greater the product’s resistance to heat transference.

The more effectively the insulation works, the greater your energy savings.

However, just buying thicker insulation and stuffing it into a wall does not increase energy efficiency.  The more air pockets in insulation, the better the insulation works.

Why Insulation R-Value is so important

Steel buildings have many benefits over other framing materials.  However, steel has one weakness: thermal transference.  In an uninsulated metal building, summer heat and winter cold can follow through the framing, affecting interior comfort.

Nevertheless, insulating metal buildings with a first-class insulation system renders steel’s thermal transference moot.

For example, Tekmetsan’s insulation panels breaks heat and cold transfer through the steel, creating a comfortable, cosy inside interior.

Starting with a Tightly Sealed Structure

Even the best metal building insulation is only part of the energy efficiency equation.

If the structure leaks air, it consumes too much energy in spite of a high insulation R-value.

As an organic material, wood framing twists, warps, creeps, and sags with changing humidity.  As lumber-framed buildings age, nails start to pull out and loosen, creating air leaks and drafts.

On the other hand, a pre-engineered steel building creates a very tight building envelope.

The steel framing will never move or change in shape.  The high-strength bolts and screws used in a TEKMETSAN metal building hold tightly.  Consequently, our metal buildings stay tight and draft-free for the lifetime of the structure.

Insulating Metal Buildings during Construction is the Smart Move

Customers sometimes consider cutting corners by eliminating steel building insulation from their order.  They think they can add insulation to the building later.

Insulating metal buildings at a later date is possible.  However, it is much more labour-intensive to add steel building insulation to an existing structure than to install insulation during construction.

In delayed insulation installation, some of the structure will require disassembly.

In addition, removing and replacing steel panels could cause leaks, if screws are not placed in exactly the same locations.

Conclusion

You need to consider how to insulate a metal building for maximum efficiency right in the early phase of the project design. Tekmetsan steel buildings come with great options of medium and high R values to provide an energy efficient insulated environment for your building.